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Table 1.

Definitions for the contingency matrices and AuDIT performance for all analyzed data sets.

sources of inaccurate quantification in peptide mrm-ms

Many factors can contribute to inaccurate quantification in MRM-MS, but the enormous sample complexity at the peptide level, combined with potential for overlapping precursor and product ion masses, synergistically exacerbate the potential for poor quantification in proteomics. When tryptic digests of plasma, tissue interstitial fluids, and tissue or cell lysates are analyzed by LC-MRM-MS, tens to hundreds of different peptides elute from the LC column into the MS system nearly simultaneously. Dealing with this high degree of complexity is made more difficult by the need both to use a mass window of 0.5–1 Da on triple-quadrupole mass analyzers to select the precursor ions of peptides for fragmentation and to select the product ions formed by fragmentation for detection. These requirements mean that C isotope peaks of nontargeted peptides and their product ions can “leak” into the selection and detection windows. Because only a few product ions from mass-selected precursors are being monitored (rather than acquisition of full MS and MS/MS scans) the analyst is blind to when such leakage is occurring. Although narrower mass windows would clearly produce higher selectivity for both precursor and product ions ( 40 )( 41 )( 42 )( 43 ), the mass width of the selection windows is limited by the ion-transmission properties of triple-quadrupole mass analyzers, which produce a steep decline in signal as these windows are narrowed to <0.5 Da.

The lengths of most tryptic peptides are 8–20 amino acid residues, and these peptides are composed largely of subsets of the same 20 amino acids that differ only in their linear arrangement. Therefore, it is not uncommon in highly complex biological samples to have peptides of the same or nearly the same precursor mass but with different sequences that elute very close in time and are fragmented simultaneously with the analyte of interest (i.e., chimera spectra) ( 44 ). Furthermore, it is common for such peptides to fragment and produce one or more fragment ions with masses identical or nearly identical to the fragment ions of the analyte of interest. If one or more of these common fragment ions happen to be among the small number being monitored by MRM-MS (i.e., within ±0.5–1.0 Da of the mass of a monitored fragment ion from the desired analyte), then an interference results. Importantly, these types of interferences can arise from any ions, peptide or nonpeptide (e.g., detergent), that have the same nominal precursor and product ion combination.

Fig. 1 illustrates how a peptide analyte can be falsely identified—and therefore be inaccurately quantified—in the absence of an SIS. Four product ion transitions from the doubly charged precursor of the peptide AQLGGPEAAK were monitored by MRM-MS in digested plasma. All 4 of these transitions coeluted in each of 3 distinct peaks in the chromatogram between 17 min and 18.5 min (Fig. 1 , B–D). Identifying which of these peaks corresponds to the authentic analyte peptide in principle could be accomplished by comparing the product ion intensities of an external reference standard peptide run under identical MRM-MS conditions. Such identification, however, presumes the absence of interference in any of the analyte transitions and that the retention time for the external standard run in buffer is identical to that of the analyte in the matrix. Analyte quantification is also compromised because suppression of analyte signal (precursor and product ions) by matrix constituents cannot be accounted for by use of an external standard. Use of an SIS of the analyte can compensate for all of these effects.

BATT2_AMP_PERVLT: Amps per volt

Number of amps that a 1V reading on the current sensor corresponds to. On the APM2 or Pixhawk using the 3DR Power brick this should be set to 17. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 17.

BATT2_AMP_OFFSET: AMP offset

Voltage offset at zero current on current sensor

BATT2_CAPACITY: Battery capacity

Capacity of the battery in mAh when full

If battery wattage (voltage * current) exceeds this value then the system will reduce max throttle (THR_MAX, TKOFF_THR_MAX and THR_MIN for reverse thrust) to satisfy this limit. This helps limit high current to low C rated batteries regardless of battery voltage. The max throttle will slowly grow back to THR_MAX (or TKOFF_THR_MAX ) and THR_MIN if demanding the current max and under the watt max. Use 0 to disable.

Battery serial number, automatically filled in for SMBus batteries, otherwise will be -1. With UAVCAN it is the battery_id.

This is the timeout in seconds before a low voltage event will be triggered. For aircraft with low C batteries it may be necessary to raise this in order to cope with low voltage on long takeoffs. A value of zero disables low voltage errors.

Voltage type used for detection of low voltage event

BATT2_LOW_VOLT: Low battery voltage

Battery voltage that triggers a low battery failsafe. Set to 0 to disable. If the battery voltage drops below this voltage continuously for more then the period specified by the BATT2_LOW_TIMER parameter then the vehicle will perform the failsafe specified by the BATT2_FS_LOW_ACT parameter.

BATT2_LOW_MAH: Low battery capacity

Battery capacity at which the low battery failsafe is triggered. Set to 0 to disable battery remaining failsafe. If the battery capacity drops below this level the vehicle will perform the failsafe specified by the BATT2_FS_LOW_ACT parameter.

BATT2_CRT_VOLT: Critical battery voltage

Battery voltage that triggers a critical battery failsafe. Set to 0 to disable. If the battery voltage drops below this voltage continuously for more then the period specified by the BATT2_LOW_TIMER parameter then the vehicle will perform the failsafe specified by the BATT2_FS_CRT_ACT parameter.

BATT2_CRT_MAH: Battery critical capacity

Battery capacity at which the critical battery failsafe is triggered. Set to 0 to disable battery remaining failsafe. If the battery capacity drops below this level the vehicle will perform the failsafe specified by the BATT2__FS_CRT_ACT parameter.

BATT2_FS_LOW_ACT: Low battery failsafe action

What action the vehicle should perform if it hits a low battery failsafe

BATT2_FS_CRT_ACT: Critical battery failsafe action

What action the vehicle should perform if it hits a critical battery failsafe

BATT_MONITOR: Battery monitoring

Controls enabling monitoring of the battery’s voltage and current

BATT_VOLT_PIN: Battery Voltage sensing pin Self tie bow tie Green Solid Notch SOLID Pastel green Notch Really For Sale Cheap Online Collections For Sale Quality Free Shipping Low Price Perfect Cheap Price V3auH

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery voltage sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. On the PX4-v1 it should be set to 100. On the Pixhawk, Pixracer and NAVIO boards it should be set to 2, Pixhawk2 Power2 is 13.

BATT_CURR_PIN: Battery Current sensing pin Thomas Sabo Choker white SET031440114L36v Thomas Sabo Release Dates Online wVVtz

Setting this to 0 ~ 13 will enable battery current sensing on pins A0 ~ A13. On the PX4-v1 it should be set to 101. On the Pixhawk, Pixracer and NAVIO boards it should be set to 3, Pixhawk2 Power2 is 14.

Used to convert the voltage of the voltage sensing pin (BATT_VOLT_PIN) to the actual battery’s voltage (pin_voltage * VOLT_MULT). For the 3DR Power brick on APM2 or Pixhawk, this should be set to 10.1. For the Pixhawk with the 3DR 4in1 ESC this should be 12.02. For the PX using the PX4IO power supply this should be set to 1.

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